Fireplace with hand-chiseled strips and arc with high reliefs            
House under construction with carved stone face view scale porphyry risers worked with opus incertum
                                                                                    



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Bushhammer:
Beat on a stone surface with a round or square plate. The bocciarde have a plate of about 4x4 cm, which depending on the amount of teeth contained in it produce rough or fine surfaces. They can be "by hand" or compressed air. Those of the "hand" type, are hammers with a front plate of a few square centimeters with more or less teeth (20-25), which beating on the surface make it less slippery or in any case with the so-called "Bush-hammered" processing. Of the type "Air", are "Carrettini"floor
                    popped by hand dragged with handle or even computerized machines but always with widia or diamond plates. Once the teeth were in steel, tempered with the skill of the blacksmith-stonemason. Big or fine bush-hammering depends on the plates and the "teeth" they contain. Even a fine tick may seem bush-hammered, but only the lines of the tip distinguish it and must be a few millimeters and aligned (fine check).
Cognara:
Vertical slit on the stone with a length of 4-5 cm and a width of about 1 cm, made with hardened steel points to cut the stone. Depending on the size of the boulder they are more or less numerous at variable distances: from a few centimeters to a half a meter from each other. One cognara calls another and together they determine a good cut. They can be made by hand excavated with a hammer and a hardened tip, or with compressed air guns. If you want to cut a 30 cm stone for example, you do not need to make a 5 cm cognara, but you only need one of 2 cm made in the right direction of the stone. The depth of the cognara is about 2-3 cm.
Facing:
This term refers to a stone worked with a natural gap. For example, a sawn stone is not open-faced and not even bush-hammered or polished. A wall of natural stones, even if "Traguardato" is a face-to-face. Horror in the work in front of you: the signs of the cognare or cuts! A simple example of facing work is the "Bolognini", stone bricks of various sizes with the natural façade of the local stone.
Escape:
Space of plaster or mortar of cement or lime that joins one stone to another. An escape can be regular or filling this depends on the ability to know how to work the stone. The long getaways become "Corsican" and tell work done in economics. The stones can be laid to "dry" and then lean one on top of the other without the addition of adhesives. In this way they must be precise when working and must have the shaped sides for a solid support. They have been used for a great many containment purposes during each historical period. The effort and the scrupulousness in the construction determined the duration in time.Pillar hat with handmade strips
Giandino:
Tool to be used by hand chisel type with plate and well-defined edge. It can be used to trim or glaze paving stones. They have been widely used for trimming paving of squares, or for defining corners of pillar or cantonal corners. It can have solid or gentle cut, given by the momentum of the hammer that beats and the sensitivity of those who use it. He created straight or jagged threads, precisely according to the abilities of those who wielded it. Originally it was of tempered steel and beaten mainly by stonemasons with blacksmith quality. It was very difficult for those who did not use it to be able to create it to measure. Now the last stonemasons use those with the plate in widia (pronounced vidia).
Opus Incertum:
In the jargon it is also called "Uncertain Work". It is a Romanesque style of stone working where the "Fugues" do not have to be long but discontinuous. It looks like a spiderweb that suggests an art where the square meters do not count but the ability to execute it. Opus incertum can be used both for the construction of walls and for pavings with raw or cracked or polished or bush-hammered stone slabs.
Ponciotto:
Steel cylinder with a diameter of about 4-5 cm, and a length of 8-10 cm, beaten and chiselled but not sharp, must be placed inside the cognara and beaten in sequence to the others until the beat changes sound by breaking the boulder. Once they also used wooden wedges that were then beaten in the cognars. Then they were wet and left there until the wood was growing so hard to cut the stone. Another similar technique was used with leather or thick leather.
Punta:
Octagonal cone in steel with a diameter of 18 mm; the new length is about 25 cm. Beat and tempered with four-sided tips, it is used for roughing out the stone and for making the contacts. It is one of the most used tools by the stonemason. Those of air guns, are larger and with precision ports.
Trachyte stone archesShoulder cut:
That follows the vertical length of the grain. This system of cutting the stone, and in particular the trachyte, may be necessary when the boulder is in some positions inconvenient to other types of cutting. It is not ideal because the outcome depends on the grain if it is straight or not. In this case the so-called "Egg-shaped" cut can occur. It depends above all on the climate. With so much cold and icy stone the cut does not follow the desired course.
Trimming cut:
Contrary to the grain; cutting the boulder horizontally to the grain, most often making the trachyte with the perfect shapes. The trimming cut is used to cut stones that are then worked in front of you. It is also called "Taglio di testa".
Finish line:
Term used to define a plan on different levels. In the rough stone the "Finish Line" consists in gleaning the edges so they are perfectly in line with the other side and can be joined without steps or differences. For "Traguardare" the stonemasons use straight iron rods that together with the sensitive eye determine the differences to be adjusted. Just linear one side and then mark with charcoal or pencil and the help of a row of iron the other side. In this way joining them the stones can be popped and worked with straight plane. Walls or "Opus incertum" works will be linear and well worked.

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