Fireplace with hand-chiseled strips and arc with high reliefs                    House under construction with carved stone face view                      scale porphyry risers worked with "opus incertum"                                                                                                    



                 





Glossary of quarry    русский     Italiano     Deutsch     Mèxicano               

Bocciardare: Beating up on a stone surface with a round or square plate. The bocciarde have a plaque of about 4x4 cm, which according to the quantity of teeth in it, produce rough surfaces or purposes. They can be "Hand" or compressed air. Those of the type "A hand", are of the hammers with a plate in front of a few square centimeter with more or less teeth (20-25),  that beating on the surface make it less slippery or in any way with the processing so-called "Bocciardata". Such as "air", are "carts" dragged with handle or even computerized machines but always with plates vidial or diamond. Once the teeth were steel, tempered with the blacksmith skill-stonemason.
Cognara: Vertical slit on the stone by the length of 4 to 5 cm, and width of about 1 cm, made of tempered steel spikes to cut stone. According to the size of the boulder are more or less numerous at variable distances: from a few centimeters up to half a meter apart. A cognara calls another and together determine a good cut.raw popped paved work to "opus incertum" Can be done by hand carved with the hammer and the tip tempered, or with blowguns. If you want to cut a stone of 30 cm for example, no need to make a cognara than 5 cm, but it only takes one of only 2 cm made ​​of stone in the right direction. The depth of cognara is about 2 to 3 cm.
ShowFacing: This term is defined as a carved stone with natural cleft. For example, a cut stone facing and is not even a bush-hammered or smooth. A wall of natural stones, even if "the object to measure" is facing. Horror in the works in facing: the signs of cognare or cuts!
Escape
: Space plaster , cement mortar , lime combining one stone to another. An escape can be regular or filling this depends on the ability of knowing how to work the stone. The joints become long "Courses" and tell work done in economics.

Giandino: Tool to be used by hand with chisel type plate and the edge well defined. Used to trim or glean facing stones . They were very used to trim pavements of the streets, or to define the edges of the corners of pillars or cantons. It can have massive cut or kind, given the momentum of the hammer hits him and the sensitivity of the user. He created wires straight or jagged, exactly according to the abilities of those who appealed. It was originally tempered steel and wrought mainly by stone masons with quality locksmith. It was very difficult for those not used to being able to create custom. Now the last stonemasons use those with plaque in widia.Hat pillar strips and worked with chisel
Opus Incertum: In the jargon is also called "Opera uncertain". It is a Romanesque stone processing where the "leaks" do not have to be long but discontinuous penalty. It looks like a spider processing which suggests an art where you do not count the square but the ability executing it.
Ponciotto: Steel cylinder with a diameter of about 4 to 5 cm, and a length of 8 to 10 cm, wrought and tempered chisel but not sharp, to be placed inside the cognara and beaten in sequence to the other until the heartbeat does not change sound breaking the boulder. Once exerted themselves also of wooden wedges which were then beaten in cognare after being wet and then left there until the wood growing not strained to the point of cutting the stone .Arches with wide base and straight edges handmade
Punta: Octagonal steel cone with a diameter of 18 mm, and the length from new is about 25 cm. Battuta and tempered at the tip of four faces, is used to roughing the stone and to make cognare. It is one of the tools most used by the stonemason. Those of air guns are bigger and with entrances to accuracy.
Cut Shoulder: That follows the vertical length of the grain. This system of cutting the stone, in particular the trachyte , may be necessary when the boulder is located in some uncomfortable positions to other types of cutting. This is not ideal because the outcome depends on whether grain is straight or not. In this case you can check the cut so-called "Ad egg". This also depends on the climatic situation. If it is cold and icy stone is cut does not follow the desired course.
Cutting trincante: Contrary to the grain, grain that slicing horizontally to the rock, creating most of the time with the trachyte  perfect shapes. The cut trincante is used to cut stones that are then processed to facing. It is also called "Cutting head".
Goal, finishing line: Term used to define a plane. In the rough stone "Goal" is to glean the edges so they are perfectly in line with the other side and you can join without steps or differences. For "sighting" the masons use iron rods straight and together determine the sensitive eye to adjust differences. In this way the walls or work "Opus incertum" are linear and well worked.

  Since 1997 Sandro Lazzarini.                          arte@scalpellino.eu